Saturday, March 26, 2016


in Malaysia
The early history of Malaysia is obscure. It was split into small independent kingdoms until the 15th century when Malacca became a great kingdom and trading center, founded by a refugee prince. He converted to Islam, and Malacca became a center for the further spread of the Muslim faith. According to historical data, dating back to the early Christians appears the seventh century by the Persian and Turkish merchants brought Christianity. 1511 Portugal invaded Malacca brought Roman Catholicism. The seventeenth century, the Dutch landed in Malacca, the Portuguese driven out, and these cannot continue to promote Catholic, and while the introduction of the Dutch Reformed Christianity. Because of its desirable location and despite constant fighting with surrounding kingdoms, the Dutch took it over in 1641.

In 1710, the Dutch let Catholics worship recovery waiting in Malacca, Malaysia established the whole Catholic Church: St. Peter's Church, this church holds true today, it is the oldest church. Melaka Christ Church, established in 1753 by the Dutch, is also among the first Christian church in Malaysia. The British, for trade and political reasons, moved into the area and took control of Penang (1786), Singapore (1819) and Malacca (1824). To work the tin mines, the British imported Chinese and Indian laborers, who then became involved in territorial disputes with the native Malays. The British, therefore, worked indirectly through the hereditary Malay rulers (sultans) so as to maintain peace and order and protect their trading interests. On 1838, by which the Church in the first 38 years after the British took over Malacca, managed by the Anglican Church. According to Christian recorded in the book of Malaysia, the first of the Malaysian Malay Bible is published in 1662, and the first of the Chinese Bible printed in 1823.

            At this time, East Malaysia was largely dominated by the powerful Muslim state of Brunei. Through gifts, land grants and trade, the area became a British protectorate in 1888. Following occupation by the Japanese during World War II, there was a movement for independence from Britain. This was achieved for Peninsular Malaysia in 1957. In 1963, the current Malaysia was formed with the addition of Sabah and Sarawak (East Malaysia). (Singapore was also part of Malaysia for two years, before leaving for economic and political reasons.)

Sitiawan Settlement Museum. 

Most Christian denominations and the Chinese and Indian immigrants have contact, but also exposed the indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. In Sabah, 1882 Pakse church missionary group began their missionary work among the Hakka people, many Hakka body of Christ. Developed by Chinese Presbyterian Church Johor up Presbyterian is also Johor, Penang, Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur and other places to establish a church foreigners. Boxer causing chaos Chinese Methodist immigrants, and migrate to Sitiawan and Sibu in Sarawak. Emigrated to the peninsula Tamil people, including Catholic, Lutheran and Methodist. In 1932, immigrants from India Syrian Orthodox Church came to Malaya. In 1932, the Sango indigenous evangelism begins.

Today, Malaysia is a federation of 13 states, with a monarch being chosen by rotation from among the hereditary sultans. The federal parliament is democratically elected. Politics have been dominated by ethnic disputes between the Malays and the Chinese who came to the country under the British. The politically powerful Malays have been extending their influence over the non-Malay population in educational, economic and religious life. The growing power of fundamentalist Muslim politicians has further polarized the country, with consequent interethnic and interreligious tensions.

Global market forces also pose a challenge to the government. Malaysia is a leading exporter of electronics and is consistently showing economic growth. It is striving to reach “developed nation” status by 2020. The rapid economic growth that Japan experienced in the post-war years was astonishing. Toward the latter half of the 1980s, however, the economy overheated with greatly inflated real estate and stock prices. The so-called economic bubble burst in the early 1990s, leading to a recession from which the country is still struggling to recover. In spite of this, Japan remains a vital economic player globally and continues to be among the world’s leading producers in some industries, such as electronics and automobiles.

Wednesday, February 24, 2016

Diwali Festival In India

Diwali Festival In India

"Diwali", the festival of lights, illuminates the darkness of the New Year's moon, and strengthens our close friendships and knowledge, with a self-realization.

Diwali is celebrated on a nation-wide scale on Amavasya, the 15th day of the dark fortnight of the Hindu month of Ashwin, (October/November) every year. It symbolizes that age-old culture of India which teaches to vanquish ignorance that subdues humanity and to drive away darkness that engulfs the light of knowledge. Diwali, the festival of lights even to-day in this modern world projects the rich and glorious past of India.

Every year on the dark nights of Diwali the sound of firecrackers announces the celebration of the favorite festival of Indians. Homes are decorated, sweets are distributed by everyone and thousands of lamps are lit to create a world of fantasy. Of all the festivals celebrated in India, Diwali is by far the most glamorous and important. Enthusiastically enjoyed by people of every religion, its magical and radiant touch creates an atmosphere of joy and festivity.

The ancient story of how Diwali evolved into such a widely celebrated festival is different in various regions and states of India. In the north, particularly in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar and the surrounding areas, Diwali is the day when King Rama's coronation was celebrated in Ayodhya after his epic war with Ravana, the demon king of Lanka. By order of the royal families of Ayodhya and Mithila, the kingdom of which Sita was princess, the cities and far-flung boundaries of these kingdoms were lit up with rows of lamps, glittering on dark nights to welcome home the divine king Rama and his queen Sita after 14 years of exile, ending with an across-the-seas war in which the whole of the kingdom of Lanka was destroyed.

On the day of Diwali festival, doorways are hung with torans of mango leaves and marigolds. Rangolis are drawn with different colored powders to welcome guests. The traditional motifs are often linked with auspicious symbols of good luck. Oil diyas are arranged in and around the house. Because of these flickering lamps, the festival has acquired its name : Dipawali or Diwali meaning 'a rows of lamps'. On this day, people buy something for the house or some jewelry for the women of the house. It is auspicious to be buy something metallic, such as silver.

Whatever may be the fables and legends behind the celebrations of Diwali, all people exchange sweets, wear new clothes and buy jewelry at this festive time. Card parties are held in many homes. Diwali has become commercialized as the biggest annual consumer spree because every family shops for sweets, gifts and fireworks. However, in all this frenzy of shopping and eating, the steady, burning lamp is a constant symbol of an illuminated mind.

Saturday, February 20, 2016

Kadazan Dusun

Kadazan People

The Kadazans are an ethnic group indigenous to the state of Sabah in Malaysia. They are found mainly in Penampang on the west coast of Sabah, the surrounding locales, and various locations in the interior. "Kadazan" is a term referring to the Dusun Tangara most of whom lived in towns.


While it is widely believed that the term itself was a political derivative that came into existence in the late 1950s to early 1960s, no proper historical record exists pertaining to the origins of the term or its originator. However, an article by Richard Tunggolou may shed some light. According to Tunggolou, most of the explanations of the meanings and origins of the word ‘Kadazan’ assumed that the word was of recent origin, specifically in the late 1950s and early 1960s.


Kadazan culture is heavily influenced by the farming of rice, culminating in various delicacies and alcoholic drinks prepared through differing home-brewed fermentation processes. Toomis and linutau are the main rice wine variants served and consumed in Kadazan populated areas, and are a staple of Kadazan social gatherings and ceremonies.

The most important festival of the Kadazans is the Kaamatan or harvest festival, where the spirit of the paddy is honoured after a year's harvest. This takes place in May, and the two last days of the month are public holidays throughout Sabah. During the celebration, the most celebrated event is the crowning of the 'Unduk Ngadau', meaning harvest queen in Kadazan. Young women of Kadazan or Dusun descent from each district compete for this title. The beauty pageant is held to commemorate the spirit of 'Huminodun', a mythological character of unparalleled beauty said to have given her life in exchange for a bountiful harvest for her community.

In marriages, dowries are paid to the bride's family and an elaborate negotiation is arranged between the groom and bride's families. As a traditional gesture of politeness and civility, the dowry is metaphorically laid out with match sticks on a flat surface, and representatives from each side push and pull the sticks across a boundary to denote the bargaining of the dowry. Dowries traditionally consisted of water buffaloes, pigs, sacks of rice and even urns of tapai. Modern dowry negotiations also include cash and land ownership deeds. Kadazan women from the Penampang and Dusun women from the Keningau, Ranau and Tuaran areas are widely regarded to have the most expensive dowries.

Dusun Dance

While it is traditionally customary for Kadazans to marry within a village or a neighbouring village, a downshift of xenophobia over the past few decades has eased the difficulty once associated with interracial marriage. The Kadazans have a particularly good affinity with the local Chinese, resulting in the coinage of the term Sino-Kadazan, meaning half-Kadazan and half-Chinese offspring of these unions. Due to the overwhelming Christian influence and some marriages to Muslim spouses, resulting in a mandatory conversion to Islam, still induces outrage and rejection and is known to divide fiercely traditional Kadazans. Islam has lately been embraced by a growing minority as a means to political ends considering the fact that the local Malay minority has gained political ascendance in recent years. Ruling Malay political parties have also openly been giving political and economical privileges to Kadazans who agree to convert to Islam as well as to other non-Christian Kadazans. Conspiracy has said that the Kadazan Christian trying to establish Christian government in Sabah.

Wednesday, February 17, 2016

Minangkabau People

Minangkabau people (Minangkabau: Urang Minang; Indonesian: Suku Minang; Jawi: مينڠكاباو), also known as Minang, is an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia. Their culture is both matrilineal and patriarchal, with property and land passing down from mother to daughter, while religious and political affairs are the responsibility of men, although some women also play important roles in these areas. This custom is called Lareh Bodi Caniago and is known as Adat perpatih in Malaysia. Today 4,5 million Minangs live in the homeland of West Sumatra, while about 4,5 million more are scattered throughout many Indonesian and Malay peninsular cities and towns.

The Minangkabau are famous for their dedication to education, as well as the widespread diaspora of their men throughout southeast Asia, the result being that Minangs have been disproportionately successful in gaining positions of economic and political power throughout the region. The co-founder of the Republic of Indonesia, Mohammad Hatta, was a Minang, as were the first President of Singapore, Yusof bin Ishak, and the first Supreme Head of State or Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia, Tuanku Abdul Rahman.

The Minangkabau are strongly Islamic, but also follow their ethnic traditions, or adat. The Minangkabau adat was derived from animist and Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before the arrival of Islam, and remnants of animist beliefs still exist even among some practising Muslims. The present relationship between Islam and adat is described in the saying "tradition [adat] founded upon Islamic law, Islamic law founded upon the Qur'an" (adat basandi syara', syara' basandi Kitabullah).

As one of the world's most populous (as well as politically and economically influential) matrilineal ethnicity, Minangkabau gender dynamics have been extensively studied by anthropologists. The adat (Minangkabau: Adaik) traditions have allowed Minangkabau women to hold a relatively advantageous position in their society compared to most patriarchal societies, as most property and other economic assets pass though female lines. With the arrival of the Dutch and other Muslim groups, the traditions have been gradually influenced by both western and conservative Islamic thought.

Based on the Raffles' vision, Minangkabau is believed to have been the cradle of the Malay race. Their West Sumatran homelands was the seat of the Pagaruyung kingdom and the location of the Padri War (1821 to 1837).

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